The Design Way third print of paperback! Here, the adjectives incremental and radical are used as in the field of technological 1 Geoff Mulgan, Social Innovation: What It Is, Why It Matters, How It Can Be Accel- innovation: They refer to changes that lie within erated London: Basingstoke Press,
The list could continue, touching on every area of daily life. It aims to experiment with bringing creative problem-solving, design thinking and user centred design approaches to policy-making in central government by undertaking projects with the 17 government departments funding the lab. Issues 26 1 , 40—53 CrossRef Google Scholar.
Design for social innovation is a practice capable of reframing problematic situations, summoning participation, facilitating communication between stakeholders, tooling up participants, and Estimated Reading Time: 11 mins.
19/07/2015 · Design for social innovation can be seen as social-purpose directed participatory design with a sustainable goal. To play an active role in social innovation, design now is seeking alternative patterns to facilitate the rich interactions inherent in the open process. However, HCD, the once prevailing design approach, is vanishing from this agenda.
Design for Social Innovation as a form of Design Activism: An action format - DESIS Network
17/02/2018 · This paper presents and discusses an in-progress action format developed through a reflection on several design experiments aiming to make things happen. It brings to the already rich debate on social innovation a designer’s perspective mainly focused on …
Making Things Happen: Social Innovation and Design Ezio Manzini The Design for Social Innovation for Social Innovation and Design Sustainability (DESIS) is a network of design Very succinctly, social innovation can be understood as “a new idea labs based in design schools (or in other that works in meeting social goals.”1 A more detailed definition design-oriented universities) promoting could be the following: Social innovation is Estimated Reading Time: 10 mins.
Making Things Happen Social Innovation And Design.
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Issue Navigation. Special Issue: Design and Innovation: How Many Ways? Francesca Rizzo, Allesandro Deserti, Cabirio Cautela, and Francesco Zurlo, Guest Editors. Introduction Bruce BrownRichard BuchananCarl DiSalvoDennis DoordanVictor Margolin. Design Issues 30 1 : 1—2. View article. Design and Innovation: How Many Ways? Cabirio CautelaAlessandro DesertiFrancesca RizzoFrancesco Zurlo. Design Issues 30 1 : 3—6. The Hidden Side of Design: The Relevance of Artisanship Marco BettiolStefano Micelli.
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Democratic Psychiatry Franco Basaglia was an exceptional psychiatrist who, in the s, founded the Democratic Psychiatry movement. These groups were real enterprises—not entities whose very existence depended on finan- cial backing from the state. Why did he do it?
The path laid out 40 years ago in Trieste by Basaglia has since become normal practice in Italy or at least it should be. In , as a result of his efforts, a national law was passed that opened up all psychiatric hospitals and set up new forms of assistance to the mentally ill. For example, a cooperative of ex-patients currently runs a bar, restau- rant, and bookshop in the ex-psychiatric hospital in Milan and every year organizes an important cultural festival.
Slow Food In , Carlo Petrini founded the international Slow Food move- ment. Driven by the same basic motivation, Slow Food looked at and supported the supply and valorization of food products that would gradually disappear if nothing were done because they were not economically viable in the economics of the dominant agro-industrial system.
In practical terms, Slow Food has cultivated food awareness on the demand side through the actions of consumer-producer organizations: the Condotte known outside Italy as Convivia.
Consequently, it has spurred the growth of a market for these high-quality products. On the supply side, it has networked with farmers, breeders, fish- ermen, and the firms that process their products, and has estab- lished and promoted local organizations the Presidia to backing the suppliers and processors by connecting them to each other and to their market.
Basaglia and Petrini, and the teams they worked with to set up Democratic Psychiatry and Slow Food, have been the drivers of very meaningful and radical social changes. And the changes they made were carried out through their two extraordinary strategic design initiatives. In fact, both men managed to link the concrete 5 Carlo Petrini, Slow Food Nation: Why local activities in which they were involved with far-reaching Our Food Should Be Good, Clean and visions that ultimately brought people together, awakening the Fair Milano: Rizzoli, Should Be Good, Clean, and Fair Milano: Rizzoli Ex Libris, At the same time, beyond the discourse, the process of change had to be adequately supported—facilities services, places, and tools had to be avail- able to enable people in this case the mentally ill to overcome their difficulties and fulfill their potential capabilities.
Petrini through Slow Food followed a similar course in artic- ulating a radical new vision of what an advanced, sustainable food system could be like. Bottom-Up: When Social Innovation is Driven by Local Communities To illustrate bottom-up innovation, I could refer to a variety of everyday life innovations, but to better explain them and their specificity, I begin by considering two beautiful and successful stories of radical change on the local scale.
NYC Community Gardens USA Community Gardens are groups of volunteer gardeners that main- tain public gardens in New York City with the support of Green- Thumb, a program within the Department of Parks and Recreation that provides material, technical, and financial support to garden- ers. The majority of GreenThumb gardens were derelict vacant lots.
Today, hundreds of community gardens in New York City are located in all five bor- oughs and host a wide range of different activities. The volunteer gardeners, who are the backbone of this sys- tem, are very diverse in age and background. They plant and maintain trees, shrubs, and flowers; hold events and educational workshops; produce local urban food; and open the garden to the public every day during fixed time periods.
They went to villages, about a two-hour drive from the city, and found that traditional agriculture models—though strug- gling—still survived in the remote countryside. Thanks to Ainonghui and the direct links it has created between citizens and farmers, the incomes allow the farmers to sustain traditional farming and to lead a bet- ter and respected life. Several farmers have returned to the coun- tryside to join in the organic food network.
The list could continue, touching on every area of daily life. To do so, they had to: 1 re discover the power of coop- Milano, We refer to these groups as creative commu- nities: people who cooperate in inventing, enhancing, and managing via- ble solutions for new and sustainable ways of living.
How can we organize the daily functions of the elderly if the family no longer provides the support it traditionally offered and the state no longer has the means to organize the requested services? How can we respond to the demand for natural food and healthy living conditions when living in a global metropolis? These questions are as day-to-day as they are radical.
In spite of its overwhelming offer of products and services, the dominant pro- duction and consumption system is unable to give answers to these very basic questions. These groups of people have been able to answer them by applying their creativity to break with main- stream models of thinking and doing and by conceiving and enhancing new ways of doing, based on original combinations of existing products, services, and knowledge.
This means participating as peers with other actors involved in creative community building and in collaborative service co-design. In this modality, designers have to facilitate the convergence of different partners toward shared ideas and potential solutions. This kind of activity requires a set of new 11 Anna Meroni, Creative Communities: design skills: promoting collaboration among diverse People Inventing Sustainable Ways of Living Milano: Polidesign, In this mode designers have to conceptualize and develop solutions for specific collaborative services and other enabling artifacts e.
We refer to these interactions as hybrid processes. For instance, a micro-nursery exists because of the active participation of the mothers and fathers involved. However, it might have been started when the parents looked to the experi- ences of other groups and eventually interacted with some of them , and it might be backed up by specific top-down initiatives and enabling tools, such as a guidebook indicating step-by-step procedures to be followed in starting up and managing such a nursery; support from local authorities in its assessment to guar- antee its conformity to established standards ; and the support of a centralized service in case of educational or medical problems that cannot be solved within the nursery itself.
The hybrid nature of these social innovation processes becomes increasingly evident as the scale of change to be achieved increases.
One project that aims at social change on a regional scale makes the hybrid nature of social innovation much clearer. Feeding Milano Italy Feeding Milan is a strategic design project, promoted by Politec- nico di Milano—Design Department, University of Gastronomic Sciences and Slow Food Italy. The final aim of the project is to create a sustainable and innovative metro-agricultural regional model.
The designers used scenario building to open the discussion with the stakeholders enrolled, and to align interested groups on a vision and some directions. Using service prototypes, Feeding Milan has started a set of new design initiatives to make some of the envisioned solutions become real.
A digital platform supports and consolidates the connections among the Feeding Milano participants and the other potentially inter- ested stakeholders. In any case, given their aims and effects, all of them are to be considered elements of a larger participation pro- cess. In parallel to this view, Don Norman also illustrates HCD as a form of hill-climbing only suited for incremental innovation and having no way of informing the climber of where even higher hills might locate [ 1 ].
Hence, the repeating and testing until satisfied process is extracted as the hallmark of HCD. It further reinforces this one-sided role of HCD in innovation. Apparently, in this view HCD is alienated from meaning-driven innovation. The review of the current understanding of HCD addresses two aspects: the underlying worldview and the methods and process of HCD.
The implicit anthropocentric worldview is revealed by contrasting prevailing HCD practice to the backdrop of sustainability. The iterative, well-structured design process that is predominantly controlled by the designer is challenged by the growing participation of people. Given the limitations, it is pertinent to ask, is there still any possibility to develop HCD for system design as complex as social innovation?
This review brings the focus of my inquiry to the potential capability of the theoretical underpinning of HCD. It can be further phrased as: 1 Is it simply impossible to grasp the big e. These questions will be address through the phenomenological perspective and the idea of meaning making. To understand this stance, several fundamental conceptions in phenomenology are important.
Therefore, the mind is always directed outward. In phenomenology, mind and body, subject and object of experience are united. Second, anything that is experienced is inseparable from the way it is experienced. Therefore, there is nothing wrong with placing human at the center of understanding and designing the world, because our being in the world serves as a fundamental vehicle for us to understand the world. The public realm of experience is where empathy comes in.
Take the development of empathic design for example. This trajectory of empathic design mirrors the growth of HCD because the former is built on a long history of HCD [ 16 ]. The biggest challenge to empathic design is what HCD is facing too—how to adapt the established process and tools to design for networks and organizations that deliver services; how to expand the methods and politics to incorporate design that occurs in large systems and communities.
In short, the challenge is to develop appropriate approaches to link personal-sphere based design inquiry with the processes, and methods needed by design at a social scale. Following this inspirational definition, design is viewed as a form of meaning making [ 18 , 19 ]. Nevertheless, meaning is a word that has many meanings, whose origins can be traced back to a wide range of domains, varying from psychology to linguistics.
The underlying stances behind the varied understandings about meaning are described as follows. A major strand of design studies on meaning is built upon conventional semiotics, which studies meanings in objects. By doing so, things do not stand in their own right, but are deprived of their original existences and extracted as meaningful symbols or signs.
Cognitive Science treats human cognition as a mental process in terms of knowing, learning, and understanding. In this approach, the mental process is often taken to be the entirety of a design experience. This stance resonates with the aforementioned definitions—in conventional semiotics and cognitive science—of meaning as either attributes in objects or as mental constructions. Meanings, in the context of symbolic interactionism, are seen as social products that arise in the process of interaction between people; instead of being established entities, meaning involves an interpretive process in its formation and it in turn shapes human action.
Herbert Blumer maintains that: i meanings are the basis on which human beings act toward these things; ii the source of meanings is the process of interaction between people; and hence iii meanings are engaged in an interpretive process by the person who is interacting with the encountered things [ 21 ]. Symbolic interactionism provides an important perspective to contemporary interaction design. Product semantics focuses on the communicative function of product, i.
It selectively connects features of an object and features of its real environment or imagined context into a coherent unity [ 22 ].
On the one hand, it maintains that meaning is not fixed and that making sense goes around a hermeneutic circle; on the other hand, product semantics neglects personal process of meaning making, because human experience, in this approach, is viewed unable to be shared for its subjectiveness. Different lines of inquiry into human experience e. A very important insight is: inquiry into meaning needs to restore meaning into the rich relations contained in human experience.
However, one of the challenges facing this area is how to link the personal dimension to the public space so as to allow the socially relational dimensions to be revealed. The hermeneutical circle in having a design concept. Mapping out the landscape of studies on meaning allows us to notice the convergence of the relational nature of meaning and the personal, experience-based starting point where meaning arises.
This is the area that is compatible with the ethos of HCD and may potentially bring in new dimensions to its traditional design approach. Norman and Verganti are right in saying that meaning has not been well studied as an approach to innovation. However, their observation is flawed in that they overlooked the rich relationaility that meaning may provide when grounded on the exploration of the relational structure of human experience, and in that they did not see that meaning making is an interpretative process from where new meaning may arise e.
This also echoes the suggestion of Buchanan, that experience and environment are places where continuous reconstruction happens, which integrates the pluralism of past life and future possibilities in the moving present [ 29 ]. In a nutshell, grounding meaning making on human experience enables us to move beyond the claimed predicament of HCD by virtue of the fusion between the known and the unknown where new meaning emerges.
The studies on meaning with an experiential turn serves as an opener for this ongoing inquiry for its capability in accounting for both issues. They look into meaning from a holistic view and consider the human-world interactive process of meaning making process as an indispensible part of meaning study.
These relationality-focused and experience-based studies provide a good starting point for seeking a way of capturing the rich meanings arising from where HCD and social innovation meets. The following is a brief description about a preliminary conception of such a framework. While exploring the bottom line of sustainability, Stuart Walker proposes three levels of meaning: practical, social, and personal [ 4 ]. These three denote our responses respectively to environment, to other people, and to our inner self.
Each level is rooted in various worldviews including modernity, postmodernity, and traditional. They together comprise a meaningful whole when sustainability issues are under considerations. This proposition nicely bridges the personal and social dimensions and links them to the world where sustainability matters occur.
Dewey in his analysis of the structure of an experience identifies three intertwining layers of an experience: practical, emotional, and intellectual, although they interdependently constitute a unity. Meaning Making Matrix as a HCD tool to facilitate the interaction in social innovation.
As part of an ongoing study, the MMM requires further consolidation, modification, and evaluation through insights from concrete cases. The contents of MMM vary from person to person, role to role, and case to case, especially the values. To be a usable and useful tool, relevant hermeneutic sub-categories within the matrix need to be further identified and modified. It can deliver economic, ecological, social and cultural benefits to all people, improve our quality of life and create optimism about the future and individual and shared happiness [ 30 ].
While design shifts its mission from satisfying human needs rooted in the unsustainable pattern to meeting needs of humanity for a sustainable future, conventional HCD needs to be reenergized with a consistent approach. Seeing human beings as the measure of the artificially shaped world is still a vital perspective, however, a new set of graduations capable of capturing the previously glossed over dimensions of the world needs to be developed. Design as meaning making with a combined interest in exploring human experience will serve as an opener to address this task.
The framework of meaning making proposed here is a preliminary step of an ongoing inquiry. This tool will open up new opportunities for HCD when situated in the contemporary sustainable challenges. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. International Conference on Cross-Cultural Design. When Human-Centered Design Meets Social Innovation: The Idea of Meaning Making Revisited. Authors Authors and affiliations Jin Ma. Conference paper First Online: 19 July Keywords Meaning Human-centered design Social innovation Phenomenological perspective Hermeneutic spiral.
Download conference paper PDF. Sustainability Although the far-sighted understanding about HCD sees products as the mediation of the interaction between people and that between people and the social and natural worlds, the emphasis on human needs and aspirations has been long overriding the care for the relationship between human beings and the world. Participatory Design HCD and participatory design [ 5 , 6 ] share a fundamental emphasis on people, i.
Social Innovation Design is shifting its attention from physical products design, firmly rooted in mass production rationalized for efficiency, to system design that is related to new ideas and values. Radical Innovation The literature on innovation studies divides innovation into two categories: incremental and radical.
To expand the understanding of meaning by exploring the tacit and embodied dimensions of design also becomes a growing focus in phenomenological studies. Figure 1 illustrates how individual experience can be broadened into a public dimension: meaning could be a product of co-creation arising from the interplay between constructing and reconstructing.
Located in the business and social context, Marcus Jahnke develops an understanding of the contribution of design practice to innovation from the hermeneutic perspective [ 27 ]. Open image in new window. Different studies on meaning are positioned in Fig. Obviously, in comparison with the other three quadrants, the upper right corner of the map remains loosely occupied. There is a limited body of studies on meaning, which is based on the structure of human experience and focuses on relations rather than elements.
Especially the explorations of relations that bridge personal and social facets of meaning are scanty now. The preliminary framework of meaning making is a matrix of the environmental, social, and personal aspects of meaning and the knowledge, process, and value s of the experience of design see Fig.
Therefore it is fundamentally a HCD tool that allows individual participants including designers, people from the community, or stakeholders to voice out the meanings derived from their experiences.
In particular, these meanings will by no means be limited to either personal or sociocultural sphere, and the interaction between different MMMs will introduce new meanings as well as new rounds of interpretive process.
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Social Innovation and Design Very succinctly, social innovation can be understood as “a new idea that works in meeting social goals.”1 A more detailed definition could be the following: Social innovation is a process of change emerging from the creative re-combination of existing assets (from social capital to historical heritage, from traditional craftsmanship to accessible advanced ...
27/11/ · (See Ezio’s recent papers in Design Issues – “Making Things Happen: Social Innovation and Design” Vol No.1 () – and in CoDesign, co-authored with Francesca Rizzo – “Small Projects / Large Changes: Participatory Design as an Open Participated Process” Vol.7 No ().) Perhaps, along the way those innovations might be. 11/08/ · Manzini, E.: Making things happen: social innovation and design. Des. Issues 30(1), 57–66 () CrossRef Google Scholar. 01/01/ · Making Things Happen: Social Innovation and Design. Ezio Manzini had been full professor of Design at Politecnico di Milano until his retirement in He is Honorary Doctor at The New School of New York () and at the Goldsmiths College of London (), and Honorary Professor at Cited by:
Ezio Manzini · The Making of Collaborative Cities. Social Innovation...
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